A growth company is a company that consistently grows by investing in projects that will generate growth. A growth stock, however, is a stock that earns a higher rate of return over stocks with a similar risk profile. Feasibly, a company could be a growth company, but its stock could be a value stock if it is trading below its peers of similar risk.
Defensive Company and Defensive Stock
A defensive company is a company whose earnings are relatively unaffected in a business cycle downturn. A defensive company is typically reflective of products that we "need" versus "want". A food company, such as Kellogg, is considered a defensive company. A defensive stock, however, will hold its value relatively well in a business cycle downturn.
Cyclical Company and Cyclical Stock
A cyclical company is a company whose earnings are affected relative to a business cycle. A cyclical company is typically reflects products we "want". A retail store, such as The Gap, is considered a cyclical company. A cyclical stock, however, will move with the market in relation to the business cycle.
Speculative Company and Speculative Stock.
A speculative company is a company that invests in a business with an uncertain outcome. An oil exploration company is an example of a speculative company. A speculative stock, however, is a stock that has potential for a large return, as well as the potential for considerable losses. An example of speculative stocks can be found in the tech bubble, where investors put money into speculative stocks, but the investor could have been hurt financially or made large gains depending on the stock the investor invested in.